The heter mechira came about in the first shmitta year, 5649 (1888), after thousands of years in exile. Some opposing poskim changed their positions when they saw how urgent the situation was. Anti-Zionism caused more opposition.
“What is the difference between shemittah and shevi’is?”
“What are sefichin?”
“I consider myself fairly well-educated, which may be a mistake. But I recently heard a term that I never heard before: heter otzar beis din. What does this term mean?”
A review of key halachos of The Shmita year.
The rationale behind Shmita, is to create for us a “Shabbat Shabbaton” every 7 years. Like the contemporary Sabbatical, this results in a complete change in our routine, a break from the norm, a chance to recharge the batteries & then make a new start, refreshed & reinvigorated.
The Torah (VaYikra 25:1-7) teaches that every seventh year is shmittah and prohibits
working the land of Eretz Yisrael. During that year; one may not plow, plant, or work the
field in any way. Furthermore, the farmer must treat whatever grows by itself on his land
as ownerless, allowing others to pick and keep his fruit.
Hillel Nesi'a introduced the prozbul contract. The prozbul contract is a declaration by a creditor that he hands over all of his claims to the religious court and that he will collect these debts via the court’s authority after the Shmittah year.