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Beit Midrash Shabbat and Holidays Rosh Chodesh

What if I goofed and said Tikanta Shabbos by Mistake?

Halachot of The special Musaf for Shabbat Rosh Chodesh. Question: I realized in the middle of Musaf this Shabbat, that I was reciting the regular Shabbat Musaf rather than the special Musaf for Shabbat Rosh Chodesh. What should I have done?
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Question: I realized in the middle of Musaf this Shabbos, that I was reciting the regular Shabbos Musaf rather than the special Musaf for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. What should I have done?

Answer:
This Shabbos is also Rosh Chodesh, requiring the recital of a special text for Musaf, which includes elements of the usual Shabbos Musaf, the usual Rosh Chodesh Musaf, and a special introductory passage. This passage, beginning with the words Atah Yatzarta, is different from the usual introduction of the middle either of the Shabbos Musaf, or of Tikanta Shabbos, or of the middle of the usual Rosh Chodesh Musaf, but actually bears close resemblance to the introductory part of Yom Tov Musaf. The continuing of the middle bracha of Musaf combines elements of both Shabbos Musaf and Rosh Chodesh Musaf.

The predicament mentioned above is very common: What do I do if I mistakenly began reciting Tikanta Shabbos and then realize that today is also Rosh Chodesh, and that I should have said Atah Yatzarta.

I once edited an article in which the author quoted several anthologies, all of which ruled the same way, but I believe this ruling is in error. According to the sources quoted, someone still in the middle bracha of shemoneh esrei should immediately stop where he is, and go to the beginning of Atah Yatzarta, and recite the entire bracha. I will explain shortly why I am convinced that this answer is erroneous, but first...

I attempted to trace the sources quoted in the article that I edited to see if perhaps I was missing some logic or information that I would clarify in the course of my research.

What I did discover is that each source was simply quoting a previous one, and that they all traced to one obscure 19th century work who did not explain at all why he ruled this way. Classic group-think.

I will now explain why I believe this ruling is in error, and what one should do. My major concern is that the approach advocated results in repeating many parts of the shemoneh esrei, and that this repetition constitutes a forbidden interruption in the tefillah. Furthermore, to the best of my knowledge, there is no essential requirement to recite this middle bracha of the shemoneh esrei precisely in the order. Obviously, one should maintain the order as is, but there is ample evidence from major halacha authorites that, in general, mistakenly rearranging the order of a bracha is not calamitous. Thus, when left with the choice of rearranging the order of a bracha to avoid repetition, or repeating parts of the bracha and ignoring what was already said, one should follow the first approach.

Based on the above, it appears that someone who discovers that he/she began reciting Tikanta Shabbos rather than Atah Yatzarta should only mention those parts of the bracha that he/she has as yet not recited, but not repeat any theme or part of the bracha that one has already said. Although fulfilling this may be confusing to someone unfamiliar with the bracha, this should provide us with a valid reason to pay more attention to the details of this bracha and understand its different parts.

In order to explain how one does this correctly, I will divide the bracha of Atah Yatzarta into its constituent parts, so that we can identify what parts we should not repeat. We can divide the bracha Atah Yatzarta into the following seven sections:

1. The Introduction - until and including the words shenishtalcha bemitzvosecha
2. The prayer for our return - beginning with the words Yehi Ratzon - until (and including) the word kehilchasam.
3. The sentence that introduces the mention of the pesukim of the Musaf Ve’es Musafei Yom HaShabbos hazeh... until (and including) the word ka’amur.
4. Mention of the pesukim of Shabbos korban Musaf.
5. Mention of the pasuk of Rosh Chodesh korban Musaf.
6. Yismichu Bemalchusecha -
7. The closing of the bracha -- Elokeinu Veilokei avoseinu

On a regular Shabbos we recite the following sections: I have numbered them in a way that parallels the previous list:
1. Tikanta Shabbos - the introduction
2. Yehi Ratzon - the prayer for our return. This passage then introduces the mention of the pesukim of the Musaf, which only includes mention of the pesukim of Shabbos.
3. Ve’es Musaf Yom HaShabbos hazeh... until the word ka’amur.
4. Mention of the pesukim of Shabbos korban Musaf.
6. Yismichu Bemalchusecha - until (and including) Zecher lemaasei bereishis.
7. The closing of the bracha -- Elokeinu Veilokei avoseinu. We should note the closings of these two shemoneh esrei prayers are very different. On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh we recite a version that is almost identical to what we recite on weekday Rosh Chodesh, but we insert three passages to include Shabbos.

Parts 2, 4 and 6 of the two brachos are identical, whether it is Shabbos or Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. Therefore, one should not repeat these sections if one had said them already.

Part 1 on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, Atah Yatzarta, is very different from what we usually recite on a regular Shabbos. Therefore, someone still in the middle of this bracha should recite this passage again.

If someone missed part 5, mention of the pesukim of Rosh Chodesh, and is still in the middle of this bracha, he/she should recite it and introduce it with the section 3 above, which introduces the korbanos of the Musaf. However, if he/she already recited the pesukim of Shabbos korban Musaf (#4) above, he should omit the reference to Shabbos in this piece and only mention Rosh Chodesh. In the latter case, one should also change the plural Musafei to a singular Musaf since he/she now is only mentioning the Rosh Chodesh Musaf.

Having explained the rules governing these halachos, I will now present the conclusions in a hopefully clearer way, depending on when you discover your mistake:

A. If you were still reciting the beginning of Tikanta Shabbos, and had not yet reached Yehi Ratzon:
Return to Atah Yatzarta and recite it in order without any changes.

B. If you had already begun the Yehi Ratzon, but are before Ve’es Musaf Yom HaShabbos hazeh:
Complete the Yehi Ratzon until Ve’es Musaf; then recite Atah Yatzarta until the words Yehi Ratzon, then resume from the words Ve’es Musafei Yom HaShabbos Hazeh Veyom Rosh Hachodesh from the Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Musaf and continue through the rest of the tefillah.

C. If you had just begun Ve’es Musaf Yom HaShabbos hazeh:
Add the words Ve’es Musaf Yom Rosh Hachodesh hazeh, then continue in the Shabbos Rosh Musaf until Yismichu Bemalchusecha. Immediately prior to saying Yismichu Bemalchusecha insert the words from Atah Yatzarta until the words shenishtalcha bemitzvosecha. Then return to Yismichu Bemalchusecha and recite the rest of the tefillah in order.

D. If you are already in the middle of Ve’es Musaf Yom HaShabbos hazeh:
Recite Uveyom Hashabbas... until Veniskah. Then insert the words from Atah Yatzarta until the words shenishtalcha bemitzvosecha. Then return to the words Ve’es Musaf but say the following Ve’es Musaf Yom Rosh Hashodesh Hazeh until the word ka’amur. Then say Uverashei Chadsheichem in the Shabbos Rosh Chodesh section and continue in order.

E. If you are in the middle of Yismichu Bemalchusecha, complete it until Zecher lemaasei bereishis, and then insert the words from Atah Yatzarta until the words shenishtalcha bemitzvosecha. Then return to the words Ve’es Musaf but say the following Ve’es Musaf Yom Rosh Hashodesh Hazeh until the word ka’amur. Then say Uverashei Chadsheichem in the Shabbos Rosh Chodesh section. Then go to Elokeinu Veilokei avoseinu (after Yismichu Bemalchusecha) and finish the end of the bracha and the davening.

F. If you are already in the middle of the closing part of the bracha (Elokeinu Veilokei avoseinu) complete the clause that you are saying, and then insert the words from Atah Yatzarta until the words shenishtalcha bemitzvosecha. Then return to the words Ve’es Musaf but say Ve’es Musaf Yom Rosh Hashodesh Hazeh until the word ka’amur. Then say Uverashei Chadsheichem in the Shabbos Rosh Chodesh section. Then return to chadeish aleinu beyom hashabbos hazeh es hachodesh hazeh and finish the end of the bracha in the Shabbos Rosh Chodesh section.

Although all this may sound very confusing, if one spends a few seconds familiarizing oneself with the divisions of this bracha that I have made, one will easily realize why this is true, and will be ready to make the necessary adjustments should we find that we have erred. This readiness has of course a tremendous value on its own: It familiarizes one with the shemoneh esrei, something we always should do, but unfortunately often do not pay attention to.

This Shiur is published also at Rabbi Kaganof's site
Rabbi Yirmiyohu Kaganoff
Was the Rabbi of the Young Israel of Greater Buffalo, the Congregation Darchei Tzedek and also served as a dayan on the Beis Din of Baltimore. Now is a Rabbi in Neve Yaakov, Jerusalem. His Shiurim and Q&A can be found on his site: www.rabbikaganoff.com
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