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    The Laws of Purim

    8. Minors

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    It is a mitzva to train children to perform mitzvot, and from the moment a boy or girl reaches the stage at which he or she understands the Megilla and can listen to it as halakha requires, one must train them to do so.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    7. Women and Megilla Reading

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    According to Rashi and Rambam, women and men are equally obligated in the mitzva to read the Megilla, and a woman may read the Megilla for her family. In contrast, Behag and Rabbeinu Ĥananel maintain that a woman’s obligation differs from that of a man: Men must read the Megilla, whereas women must hear it.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    6. When to Read the Megilla

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    One must read the Megilla at night and again during the day, to commemorate the fact that the Jews cried out to God in their time of need during the day and at night .

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    5. Reading the Megilla and Publicizing the Miracle

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    Everyone is obligated in the mitzva of reading the Megilla: men, women, and converts. One who hears someone else read the Megilla discharges his obligation. The main purpose of reading the Megilla is to publicize the miracle and demonstrate that God rules and oversees the world, directing everything for the best.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    4. Walled and Unwalled Cities

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    There is a unique halakha pertaining to Purim: it has two dates. In most places, Purim is celebrated on the fourteenth of Adar, while in cities that were surrounded by a wall at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, and in Aĥashverosh’s capital city of Shushan, it is celebrated on the fifteenth.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    3. Establishing Purim as a Permanent Holiday

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    Even though the joy over the salvation was great, it was initially unclear how the event should be marked. Esther wrote to the Sages, “Write an account of me for future generations,” that is, write down the Purim story and include it as one of the holy books of the Tanakh.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    2. Accepting the Torah Anew

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    If we delve deeper, we will see that Haman’s decree actually stirred the singular quality, the segula, of the Jewish people. The decree made it clear that the Jewish people were willing to make great sacrifices in order to hold onto their faith. Nevertheless, they did not try to escape their Jewish destiny.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Laws of Purim

    1. The Miracle of Purim

    Chapter 15: Purim and Reading the Megilla

    The joy of Purim expresses the eternal sanctity of the Jewish people. Even though this sanctity is sometimes hidden by our sins, it never disappears.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    10. Commemoration of the Half-Shekel

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    People customarily give charity in the month of Adar in commemoration of the half-shekel that each individual would donate to the Temple, in Adar, to fund public offerings.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 4 5782
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    The Fast of Esther

    9. Ta’anit Esther

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    The custom of all Jewry, since the geonic period, is to fast on the thirteenth of Adar in commemoration of the fasts that Esther observed before approaching King Aĥashverosh to annul the decree against the Jewish peopleand the fast that the Jews observed on the thirteenth of Adar of that year.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 3 5782
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    Amaleck

    8. Can an Amalekite Save Himself or Convert to Judaism?

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    Even though the Torah commands us to wipe out the descendants of Amalek, if an Amalekite agrees to observe the seven Noahide laws, he no longer has the status of an Amalekite, and one may not kill him.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Tevet 3 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    7. Are Women Obligated to Hear Parashat Zakhor?

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    According to most poskim, women are not obligated in the mitzva of remembering Amalek, because this mitzva is connected to the mitzva of annihilating Amalek.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    6. Parashat Zakhor

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    The Sages instituted the reading of Parashat Zakhor once a year in order to fulfill the Torah commandment to remember and not forget the evil deeds of Amalek.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    5. The Mitzva to Wipe Out Amalek

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    The mitzva to destroy Amalek is primarily incumbent upon the people of Israel as a whole. Indeed, the Sages taught that the people of Israel were commanded to fulfill three mitzvot upon entering Eretz Yisrael

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    4. The Three Mitzvot Concerning the Obliteration of Amalek

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    Three mitzvot in the Torah relate to Amalek. The first is a positive commandment to remember what Amalek did to us. . The second is a negative commandment not to forget what Amalek did to us. The third is a positive commandment to eradicate Amalek’s offspring from the world.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    2. The Four Parshiyot

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    The Sages instituted the public reading of four Torah passages (parshiyot) in addition to the weekly Torah portion: Parashat Shekalim, Parashat Zakhor, Parashat Para, and Parashat Ha-ĥodesh.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    3. Leap Years and the Added Month of Adar

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    It is well known that the Jewish months are fixed by the lunar cycle, whereas years follow the solar cycle, because Pesaĥ must always be in the springtime. In order to keep the lunar months in sync with the solar year, leap years, in which an extra month is intercalated, must be declared occasionally.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Month of Adar

    1. When Adar Arrives We Increase Our Joy

    Chapter 14: The Month of Adar

    The Sages said, “When Av arrives we curtail [our] joy, and when Adar arrives we increase [our] joy”. In saying this, the Sages teach us that nothing happens by chance and that every season has its own character and nature.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Kislev 12 5782
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    The Essence of Purim

    The Joy of Purim

    The Joy of Purim possesses two central aspects: Firstly, because even what had initially been evil was transformed into good, the joy of Purim is limitless; secondly, on Purim the Jewish people received the Torah through free will.

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | Adar 11, 5750
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    The Month of Adar

    Adar and the Four Parshiot

    Part One

    Part One

    Rabbi Eliezer Melamed | 5761
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