Question #1: Homebound
"As a mother of several small children, it is not easy for me to go out on Shabbos to hear Parshas Zachor. Am I required to do so?"
Question #2: Outreaching in the Afternoon
"At the outreach program that I run, many of our students do not arrive until Shabbos afternoon. Should we conduct a Parshas Zachor reading then for them?"
Question #3: Reading without a Brochah
"Why is no brochah recited on Parshas Zachor at a women’s reading?"
This Shabbos we read the special maftir that begins with the words Zachor es asher asah lecha Amalek baderech be’tzeis’chem mimitzrayim, "Remember what Amalek did to you on the road as you were leaving Egypt." According to the Rambam and many others, this short maftir reading actually includes three different commandments:
(1) A positive mitzvah, mitzvas aseh, to remember the evil that Amalek did.
(2) A lo saaseh commandment not to forget what happened.
(3) The mitzvah to blot out the people of Amalek, mechiyas Amalek (Rambam, Hilchos Melachim 5:5, and Sefer Hamitzvos, Positive Mitzvos #188, 189; Negative Mitzvah #59; Semag).
The Torah’s repetitive emphasis, remember and do not forget, teaches that the commandment "remember" means to express, to state it as a declaration. This is similar to the mitzvah of Kiddush, Zachor es yom haShabbos lekadsho, which is a requirement to state the sanctity of Shabbos, and not simply to remember Shabbos (Sifra, beginning of Parshas Bechukosei). In addition, many authorities derive from the doubled command that the Torah requires us to review this declaration annually, since, after a year, one might forget (see Sefer Hachinuch, Mitzvah 603). The Sefer Hachinuch explains that since the mitzvah is to make sure that one does not forget, the Torah requirement is to restate this reminder every one to three years. The requirement of the mitzvah is fulfilled both in one’s heart and on one’s lips (Sefer Hachinuch).
(We should note that some authorities [Behag, Rav Saadiya] count all three of these as one mitzvah in the count of the 613. Presumably, they consider these additional statements of the Torah as encouraging us to remember to fulfill the mitzvah of destroying Amalek.)
The Gemara (Megillah 18a) states that the positive mitzvah of remembering what Amalek did requires reading from a Sefer Torah. For this reason, many authorities conclude that the annual public reading of Parshas Zachor from a Sefer Torah is required min haTorah (see Tosafos, Megillah 17b s.v. kol and Ritva ad loc.; Tosafos, Brachos 13a; Rosh, Brachos 7:20). Some conclude that the requirement to hear Parshas Zachor is even greater than that of hearing Megillas Esther, since the mitzvah of reading Megillah is miderabbanan, whereas Parshas Zachor is required by the Torah (Terumas Hadeshen #108). For this reason, the Terumas Hadeshen concludes that those who live in settlements that have no minyan are required to go to a place where there is a minyan for Shabbos Zachor to hear this reading, a ruling codified in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 685:7).
Those that disagree
Notwithstanding the long list of recognized early authorities who rule that an annual reading of Parshas Zachor is required min haTorah, several later authorities find this position difficult to sustain, contending that the requirement was introduced by Chazal. For example, the Minchas Chinuch (#603) states that the requirements for a minyan and a Sefer Torah can be only miderabbanan. Similarly, Shu’t Toras Chesed (Orach Chayim #37) provides a lengthy analysis why he feels that it is difficult to rule that reading Parshas Zachor annually is a Torah requirement. Nevertheless, in his final conclusion, he accepts the decision of the many earlier authorities, who rule that the Torah requires that we hear Parshas Zachor every year.
Hearing the parshah
At this point, we should address the following question: If we are required to read Parshas Zachor, how do we perform the mitzvah by listening to the reading, without actually saying the words? The answer is that there is a halachic principle called shomei’a ke’oneh: hearing someone recite the appropriate passage fulfills a mitzvah responsibility the same way reciting it does. Shomei’a ke’oneh explains how we observe the mitzvah of Kiddush when we hear someone else recite it, and applies in numerous other situations, such as reading Megillas Esther and hearing shofar.
For shomei’a ke’oneh to work, the individual who is reciting must have in mind that he is performing the mitzvah on behalf of those listening, and the listeners must have in mind that they are fulfilling their duty to perform the mitzvah by listening. It is for this reason that, in most shullen, prior to the reading of Parshas Zachor the gabbai, baal keriyah or rabbi announces that everyone should focus on fulfilling the mitzvah.
Custom of the Gra
The Maaseh Rav (#133) records that the Gra not only received the aliyah for Parshas Zachor, but used to read the Torah himself for that aliyah. Presumably, the reason that he did this was because of the general principle of mitzvah bo yoseir mibeshelucho, "it is a bigger mitzvah to fulfill a commandment by performing the mitzvah oneself than by relying on someone else to perform it."
The Sefer Torah was pasul!
What is the halachah if one discovers that the Sefer Torah used for reading Parshas Zachor was missing a letter or sustained some other shortcoming that renders it invalid? Must one re-read Parshas Zachor?
Allow me to provide some background. Although there are Rishonim who rule that the mitzvah of keri’as haTorah in general does not require one to read from a kosher Sefer Torah, the halachic conclusion requires that we do. However, if, during or after keri’as haTorah, one finds that the Sefer Torah was not kosher, one is not required to repeat what was already read (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 143:4). The rationale behind this is that since the mitzvah of reading the Torah is miderabbanan, one can rule that, bedei’evid, after the Torah has been read, the mitzvah has been fulfilled.
The same ruling would apply if the mitzvah of reading Parshas Zachor is miderabbanan. Based on the assumption that the mitzvah of Parshas Zachor is min haTorah, the Pri Megadim suggests that if the Sefer Torah used was found to be invalid, one is required to read Parshas Zachor a second time, from a different Sefer Torah (Mishbetzos Zahav, Orach Chayim 143:1).
When Parshas Zachor is read as the maftir, the person receiving the aliyah recites birchas haTorah before it is read, as we do with all aliyos to the Torah. Why is no birchas hamitzvah recited before reading Zachor es asher asah lecha Amalek, since it is one of the 613 mitzvos?
The authorities answer that we do not recite a brochah on an act of destruction, even though the world benefits from the removal of evildoers. This can be compared to one of the reasons cited why one does not recite the full Hallel on the last day of Pesach. "My creations are drowning, and you are singing praise?!" Similarly, it is inappropriate to bless Hashem for the ability to destroy evil (Kaf Hachayim 685:29, quoting Yafeh Leleiv).
What exactly is the mitzvah?
Among the Rishonim and Geonim, we actually find differing opinions as to exactly what the mitzvah entails. Some understand that the mitzvah of remembering Amalek is a requirement to know the laws involved in destroying Amalek (Raavad and Rash to Sifra, beginning of Parshas Bechukosai, as explained by the Encyclopedia Talmudis). According to this approach, the mitzvah of zechiras Amalek is primarily a mitzvah of learning Torah.
On the other hand, most authorities seem to understand that the mitzvah is to take to heart the evil that Amalek did and represents, and that it is our responsibility to combat evil in the world and help make the world a more G-dly place.
Why specifically Amalek? Because after the Exodus from Egypt and the splitting of the sea, all the nations were afraid of the Jews until the moment that Amalek attacked. Although Amalek was beaten, he decreased the tremendous awe and fear that the nations had of the Jews (Rashi).
An afternoon reading
At this point, I would like to address one of the questions cited above:
"At the outreach program that I run, many of our students do not arrive until Shabbos afternoon. Should we conduct a Parshas Zachor reading then for them?"
This actual question was posed to Rav Shmuel Vozner, of Bnei Braq, by someone doing outreach in a small community in Brazil (Shu’t Shevet Halevi 4:71). The community had a minyan in the morning, but most of the people did not come that early. The question was whether they should have a second Parshas Zachor reading late in the day.
Rav Vozner compares this situation to the following responsum authored by the Chida. On Shabbos Parshas Shekalim in a small town, the local townspeople forgot to read the special maftir on Shabbos morning, and realized it in the afternoon. The townspeople, themselves, proposed three suggestions:
Some suggested that at minchah they read Shekalim for the kohen, and for the other two aliyos they read the regular minchah reading from the next week’s parshah.
Others suggested that they read Shekalim on Monday instead of the weekday reading, since it was still before Rosh Chodesh Adar.
Still others suggested that they read Parshas Shekalim the next Shabbos as maftir.
The Chida disputed all three approaches, contending that Shekalim may be read only in the morning, and can be read only on the Shabbos on which it is designated to be read. In his opinion, one who missed reading Shekalim at its appropriate time does not fulfill the takanas chachamim by reading it any other time (Shu’t Yosef Ometz #27).
Rav Vozner contends that, according to the Chida, just as one cannot read Parshas Shekalim after its designated time, one cannot read Parshas Zachor after its designated time, and that, therefore, one cannot read it in the afternoon for those who missed it in the morning.
However, it appears that not all authorities accepted this ruling of the Chida. The Dagul Meirevavah (Orach Chayim 135) rules that a community that was unable to have keri’as haTorah on Shabbos morning, but was able to have it on Shabbos afternoon, should read the full reading and call up seven people prior to beginning minchah. Then, after reciting Ashrei and Uva Letzion, they should take out the Sefer Torah again and read the appropriate minchah reading from the following week’s parshah. Thus, he holds that one may read the main Shabbos reading in the afternoon, if necessary, which conflicts with the Chida’s ruling to the contrary.
One could argue, however, that the Dagul Meirevavah might accept the Chida’s ruling that one cannot read Parshas Shekalim in the afternoon, but for a different reason: maftir may be read only immediately following the rest of the week’s reading, and not by itself.
On the other hand, there might be a difference between Shekalim, whose reading does not fulfill any mitzvah of the Torah, and Zachor, which fulfills a Torah mitzvah that we are required to observe, even if Chazal had not made any special takanah. This is the reason why there is a widespread custom of having Parshas Zachor readings in the afternoon for those who cannot attend the reading in the morning.
Women and Parshas Zachor
Now that we understand the basics of the mitzvah, we can address the question of whether women are obligated to hear Parshas Zachor annually. The Chinuch states that women are excluded from the requirement to remember to destroy Amalek, since they are not the ones who are expected to wage war. Therefore, in his opinion, women have no obligation to hear Parshas Zachor, although they certainly may hear it and receive reward for doing so, as one who observes a mitzvah that he/she is not required.
However, other authorities dispute the Sefer Hachinuch’s approach. In Adar 5628 (1868), Rav Yaakov Ettlinger, the author of the classic Aruch Laneir commentary on several mesechtos of the Gemara, was asked by his son-in-law, Rav Moshe Leib Bamberger, whether women are required to hear Parshas Zachor. The Aruch Laneir reports that he asked his rebbe, Rav Avraham Bing, who told him that Rav Nosson Adler (who was also the rebbe of the Chasam Sofer) ruled that women are required to hear Parshas Zachor, and he insisted that they all go to hear it. The Aruch Laneir explains that Parshas Zachor is not a time-bound mitzvah, since one can read Parshas Zachor whenever one wants, as long as one reads it once a year. He then quotes the Chinuch’s reason to absolve women from the obligation, and notes that it should not make any difference whether women are the actual warriors; they still are involved in destroying Amalek, as evidenced by Esther’s participation (Shu’t Binyan Tziyon 2:8).
Others dispute the basic assumption of the Chinuch, since, in a milchemes mitzvah, everyone is obligated to contribute to the war effort, even a newlywed bride (Sotah 44b). Evidence of this is drawn from Yael, who eliminated Sisra, and Devorah, who led the war effort (Minchas Chinuch). On the other hand, others find creative reasons to explain and justify the Sefer Hachinuch’s position. (The intrepid reader is referred to the responsum on the subject penned by Rav Avraham of Sochatzov [Shu’t Avnei Nezer, Orach Chayim #509].)
The Kaf Hachayim (685:30) presents a compromise position, ruling that women are obligated in the mitzvah to remember the events of Amalek, but that they are absolved of hearing Parshas Zachor, since this is a timebound mitzvah. (See also the Toras Chesed, who reaches a similar conclusion, but based on a different reason. More sources on this topic are cited by Shu’t Yechaveh Daas 1:84.)
With or without a brochah?
It has become fairly common today to have special women’s readings of Parshas Zachor later in the day, for the benefit of those who must take care of their children in the morning during regular shul davening. It is also universal practice not to recite a brochah before these readings. There are three reasons why one should not recite a brochah on the afternoon reading:
(1) We do not recite a brochah on the mitzvah of Zachor.
(2) It is not certain that women are obligated to hear this reading.
(3) It is not clear that one may recite maftir when it does not immediately follow the reading of the Torah.
Notwithstanding what we have just written, some authorities contend that whenever one reads from a Sefer Torah in public, one is required to recite a brochah, because of the Torah-ordained mitzvah of birchas haTorah. In their opinion, this is true even when the reading itself is not required, and even when one has already recited birchas haTorah in the morning (Be’er Sheva and Shu’t Mishkenos Yaakov, both quoted by the Toras Refael #2). Although the Toras Refael concludes that most Rishonim dispute that reciting birchas haTorah under these circumstances is a Torah requirement, he nevertheless understands that the Shulchan Aruch rules that birchos haTorah is required miderabbanan whenever the Torah is read in public.
Based on this opinion of the Toras Refael, some contemporary authorities feel that one should avoid the entire practice of extra Shabbos Zachor readings, since the special reading creates a safek brochah, a question as to whether one should recite a brochah on the reading (seen in print in the name of Rav Elyashiv). Nevertheless, the accepted practice is to have these special readings to enable women to fulfill the mitzvah.
On the other hand, the Minchas Yitzchak was asked whether one makes a brochah for an auxiliary Parshas Zachor reading (Shu’t Minchas Yitzchak 9:68). He quotes those who contend that every public reading of the Torah requires a brochah and then notes many authorities who did not share this opinion. The Minchas Yitzchak then specifically mentions the practice of those who read all of Sefer Devarim in shul on the night of Hoshanah Rabbah without reciting a brochah, noting that this was the practice of the Divrei Chayim of Sanz. He also quotes several other authorities who advocate reading the parshah of the day’s nasi after davening each day of the first twelve days of Nissan, also a custom performed without first reciting a brochah. Thus, we have several precedents and authorities who ruled that one may have a public reading of the Torah without reciting a brochah, and there is, therefore, no need to change the established practice of reading Parshas Zachor and not reciting a brochah beforehand. We should also note that when the Magen Avraham (139:5) quotes the opinion of the Be’er Sheva, he opines that once one has recited the birchos haTorah in the morning, he exempts himself from any requirement to recite further brochos on reading Torah that day, unless there is a specific institution of Chazal to recite them.
Reading on Purim
Some authorities contend that a woman may fulfill her responsibility to hear the mitzvah of mechiyas amalek by hearing the Torah reading on Purim that begins with the words Vayavo Amalek (Magen Avraham 685). Since many later poskim dispute this, I refer you to your halachic authority regarding this question.
The Semak (Mitzvah #23) explains that the reason for the mitzvah not to forget what Amalek did is so that we always remember that Hashem saved us from Amalek’s hands. Constant perpetuation of this remembrance will keep us in awe of Hashem, and this will inspire us to act in accordance with His wishes.