1) There is a command to emulate God’s ways of bein gracious and merciful . But God’s grace to people has limits . Even when he doesn’t punish , to some people he’s less gracious , and many times there are certain luxuries which he with holds from people . Should we to limit our graciousness ,or be as gracious and merciful as possible?[are there any sources which talk about this ] 2) I know that in chassidus enjoying materialism l is considered a sin . One who loves olam haze is compared to a woman who betrays her husband , because we are married to God . I believe the Rambam disagrees with this and says , the middle path is appropriate for enjoying life .Are there any other great sages who openly didn’t consider the enjoying mundane things not purely for the sake of God to be not a betrayal and a contradiction to acknowledging and expressing God’s unity(the idea of ein od milvado) How would the Rambam respond to the Tanya’s comparison ? Is there times and places were on should enjoy material pleasure even if he’s not on a level to do it for God?(or mainly for God).Also in Chassidus it’s brought that the animal soul even in Jews emanates from a not exclusively holy source . Does the fact that according to halacha and in the world a jew is considered God’s people call for every part of him ,even his animal soul(with all it’s negative traits,because it’s included in the halachic status of jew) , to be treated with special love. ?Are there sources which discuss this? 3) I know theres a halacha that one should skip parts of psukie dzimra to pay shmone esreh with the minyan.Is it it better to say certain parts of tfela out of order (like tachanun ,ashrei , ) in order to say what the tzibbur is up to [like ashrei ,aleinu , shir shel yom )? (when there not saying shmone esreh, because that is discussed in the shulchan aruch) 4) Is one allowed to interrupt psukein dzimra ,birchas krias shma , and tachanun to say 13 middos harrachamim with the tzibur [when you fell behind in a nusach sfard minyan )? 5) If you prayed shmone esreh just before chatzot of day , are you allowed to say tachanun after chatzot? Are you allowed to say alenu (for example) that consists of God’s name after zman tfela as long as you don’t have in mind to fulfill the biblical and rabinic command of tfela?
Shalom, Thank you for your many questions here! You certainly sent in a very mixed bag of lots of questions – I'll try to answer them in the limited space this format offers. 1) The act of giving and acts of loving kindness certainly need to be measured as so as not be given in an overabundance that may cause more damage than good. Every parent knows that in order to educate our children we at times must hold back from giving too much, so as to allow the child to grow. That is, one's heart should be filled with unbounded desire to do good and help others – at the same time one should know that the practical application of these character traits is often bounded within measures, that being the ultimate and true bestowal of good. A good book to start learning about building the correct character traits would be the Rambam's Eight Chapters, The Introduction to the Ethics of the Father's. 2) Your question is a very large one, and probably needs more in-depth learning of the Tanya as well as those texts that take other approaches. None the less, in short, there are opinions in Jewish thought who believe that it is permitted to enjoy this world in and of itself (as long as one avoids sin, of course). For example, the Rambam rules that a king must be totally dedicated to a life of G-dly work – but he does not rule that all Jews must lead such a life. Of course, the ideal path is one that draws us upwards towards a life that is more and more holy and imbued with pure service of Hashem. But the Torah does not place an obligation on us that is beyond our present abilities. It raises us up slowly, level by level. So, each according to their present level – and as long as one does not sin, then it is certainly permitted to enjoy this world in and of itself. (See, in Hebrew, Rav Shlomo Aviner's Be'Ahava U'Bemunah, volume 2, 85). 3) In general one should try and pray together with the minyan, especially when saying Alainu. However this is not a total obligation, so one has some room to weigh the matter based one's personal situation. (See Ashay Yisrael, 20, 31 and the footnote there). 4) No, one does not interrupt their pesukay d'zimra etc, for the 13 middot (Ashay Yisrael, 25,4). 5) Of course one should have prayed the Amidah by the end of the fourth hour of the day, and only if this was missed should a person pray after that time, as long as it is before halachic midday. In such a situation the end of the morning service (the parts after the Amidah) may be said after midday. Blessings.