I have read that there are Two Moshaichs - Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben David. Is this concept older than the Protestant Reformation?? Because Martin Luther wrote a document called the "Two Kingdoms Doctrine" which set the foundation for Separation of Church and State. So if the concept of the Two Moshiachs is older than the Protestant Reformation, can we then assume that Martin Luther got his idea for the "Two Kingdoms Doctrine" from reading Jewish texts?? And if that is true?? Does this mean that you then have a clear precedent for Separation of Synagogue and State? And Civil Law? Thanks.
The concept ot Mashiach ben Yosef and Mashiach ben David is mentioned in the Talmud and predates Martin Luther and the Protestants by at least 1,100 years! But the issue has nothing to do with separation of Church and State, which is diametrically opposed to Judaism as it is meant to lived in the Land and State of Israel. The first mashiach stresses the military victories of Israel against our attackers and settling of the Land of Israel, and the second/final mashiach from the House of David will also be a military and political leader but also a religious leader. Judaism believes in revealing Godliness in every facet of individual, family, and national life, revealing and harmonizing holiness and values into our eating, speaking, marriage and dress, as well as in our economy, army, politics, music and arts. Torah has civil, political and military law which overlap with religious law, and the study of monetary and economic laws are studied in our House of Study together with the laws of the Sabbath and eating Kosher. The State of Israel is meant to run according to the Torah of Israel, as a complete national and Godly way of life.