Beit Midrash

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Chapter Twenty Three-Part One

The Conclusion of Shacharit and the Laws of Kaddish


Rabbi Eliezer Melamed

1. Ashrei and Lamenatze’ach
After Tachanun, (on Mondays and Thursdays following the Torah reading), three passages of prayer are recited.
The first is Ashrei (Tehillah L’David). Although this prayer has already been recited in Pesukei d’Zimrah, the Psalm is repeated, for the Chachamim say (Berachot 4b), "Whoever recites Tehillah L’David three times daily is promised life in the World to Come." First it is recited in Pesukei d’Zimrah; a second time after Tachanun, and a third time before Minchah (see the laws of Pesukei d’Zimrah earlier in this book 14:3 and note 5).
Afterwards, we recite the Psalm "Lamenatze’ach mizmor l’David, ya’ancha Hashem b’yom tzarah" ("For the One Who grants victory, a Psalm of David. May Hashem answer you on the day of distress"), which serves as a continuation of the prayers of supplication (Tachanunim) recited after the Amidah. 1
Since Lamenatze’ach is a prayer about a day of distress, it is not recited on days of joy. There are various customs surrounding this Psalm. According to the minhag of the Sephardim, the law concerning it is like that of Tachanun, and every day on which Tachanun is not recited due to the joy of that day, Lamenatze’ach is not recited either. According to the Ashkenazic minhag, in order for Tachanun to be omitted, a minor joyous occasion is sufficient; however, for Lamenatze’ach to be omitted, the joyous occasion must be great. Therefore, when a chatan or a ba’al brit (the father, the mohel, or the sandak) is praying with the congregation, Tachanun is not recited, yet Lamenatze’ach is. Likewise, regarding the month of Nisan, and the days from Yom Kippur until the end of Tishrei, although Tachanun is not recited, Lamenatze’ach is. The only times it is not recited are on holidays, the eve of holidays (erev chag), and the day following a holiday (isru chag) (Rama 131:1; Mishnah Berurah 35; Kaf HaChaim 37). These customs are printed in the siddurim before the Lamenazte’ach paragraph, and each ethnic group follows its individual custom.

2.Kedushah D’Sidra – U’va L’Tzion
After that, U’va L’Tzion, also named "Kedushah d’Sidra," is recited. It contains the verses "Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh," "Baruch kevod Hashem mimkomo," and "Hashem yimloch l’olam va’ed," with their translation into Aramaic. Chazal instituted its recital so that every person praying would merit learning some verses of the Prophets (Nevi’im) every day. That is why the verses are translated into Aramaic, so that the whole nation, which was fluent in Aramaic at that time, would understand their meaning. The Chachamim highly praise the recital of Kedushah d’Sidra, for after the destruction of the Temple, it became one of the remaining practices in whose merit the world stands (Sotah 49a). Rashi explains that its recital possesses two virtues: the virtue of Torah learning, and that the verses discuss Hashem’s holiness. In Shacharit of Shabbat, there is no need to say Kedushah d’Sidra, for one’s obligation to learn the Prophets is already fulfilled by reading the Haftarah. Nevertheless, to avoid cancelling its recital altogether, it became customary to recite it before Minchah, thereby adding some extra learning on Shabbat, particularly learning that pertaining to the sanctity of Hashem.
Some say that the Chachamim established the recital of Kedushah d’Sidra when hostile rulers decreed upon Israel not to recite Kedushah, and persecutors would stand guard at the prayer services until after the Amidah repetition. After the guards left, the minyan would recite Kedushah d’Sidra. Even after the decree was abolished, the custom to recite Kedushah d’Sidra endured (Shibolei Haleket 44; Beit Yosef 132:2).
Hence, Kedushah is recited three times in Shacharit: first in Birkat Yotzer HaMeorot, again in the Amidah repetition, and a third time in Kedushah d’Sidra. Similarly, we find that many important prayers were established to be recited three times, such as Tehillah L’David (Ashrei) every day, and Vayechulu on Erev Shabbat.
In Kedushah, the congregation recites the verses "Kadosh" and "Baruch" in unison. This is true in Kedushah d’Sidra as well, and for that reason, the chazan must recite the introductory verse preceding Kedushah out loud. It is best that a person praying individually recites these verses in the tune of Torah reading with cantillation signs. This is in keeping with the opinion that, because it is a matter of sanctity, it necessitates a minyan, but when it is recited in cantillation, it resembles reading from the Torah and thus there is no need for a minyan. Someone who does not know how to recite the verses with the cantillation signs may recite Kedushah d’Sidra without them, for according to the halachah, an individual praying may also recite Kedushah d’Sidra since the verses only relay how the angels sanctify the Blessed One’s Name. 2
As a continuation of Kedushah d’Sidra, the Geonim were accustomed to reciting additional verses and requests concerning atonement, faith, and Torah. Some recited the entire wording that is before us today (the Siddur of Rav Amram Gaon), and others recited a slightly shorter wording (the Siddur of the Rasag). During the time of the Rishonim, everyone became accustomed to reciting the full wording that we have today, with slight differences between the ethnic groups.
After Kedushah d’Sidra, the chazan recites Kaddish-Titkabal in which, in addition from the main part of the Kaddish, we request that our prayers be accepted. Therefore, the chazan must be careful not to talk from the Amidah repetition until after this Kaddish. 3

3.A Person Who Is in a Hurry – When to Exit and What to Skip
The recital of Tehillah L’David (Ashrei) and Kedushah d’Sidra is more important than saying Tachanun, for the Chachamim laud the person who recites Tehillah L’David three times daily, declaring that he has a place in the World to Come (Berachot 4b). About Kedushah d’Sidra, Chazal say that it is one of the things in whose merit the world exists after the destruction of the Temple (Sotah 49a), whereas the recital of Tachanun is voluntary (Tur 131, in the name of Rav Natrunai Gaon). Therefore it is better that an individual praying on his own, who does not have time to complete everything, recites Tehillah L’David and Kedushah d’Sidra (Yechaveh Da’at 2:8).
Additionally, the virtue in reciting Tehillah L’David and Kedushah d’Sidra, whose basis is derived from the Talmud, is preferable to the recital of Shir Shel Yom (the Psalm of the Day), Pitum HaKetoret (the passage of the incense), and Aleinu L’Shabe’ach, which were customarily recited during the time of the Geonim and Rishonim (Avnei Yashfeh 9:58-60).
One who is praying in a minyan, and must leave before the end of the prayer service, should try to stay at least until after Kedushah d’Sidra, and even refrain from beginning to remove his tefillin before the conclusion of its recital (Shulchan Aruch 25:13). When possible, he should leave his tefillin on until after Kaddish-Titkabal (Mishnah Berurah 25:56). All this is only in extenuating circumstances; however, l'chatchilah, one must hear another two Kaddishim – Kaddish Yehei Shelama after Shir Shel Yom and Kaddish d’Rabbanan after Pitum HaKetoret.

. 4.Shir Shel Yom - Psalm of the Day
The Shacharit prayer was instituted to correspond to the morning Tamid offering, and after the sacrifice of the Tamid, the Levi’im would recite Shir Shel Yom (Psalm of the Day). Therefore, it became customary to say Shir Shel Yom after the Shacharit prayer service (Masechet Sofrim 18:1). Although it was not instituted originally as an obligation, and some did not regularly recite it, by the end of the period of the Rishonim, everyone had already become accustomed to doing so. 4
Before the Psalm, there is reference to the day: "Today is the first day of the week in relation to Shabbat," in order to fulfill the mitzvah of remembering the Shabbat on every day of the week (based on Ramban Exodus 20:8; the Ari as brought in Kaf HaChaim 132:26).
In Nusach Sephard, the Psalm "Tefillah L’David" (Psalm 86) is added before Shir Shel Yom, as well as a collection of verses which start with "Beit Yaakov" and "Shir HaMa’alot L’David" (Psalm 124). On days of joyous occasions, when we do not recite Lamenatze’ach mizmor l’David, ya’ancha Hashem b’yom tzarah (after Ashrei), Tefillah L’David is not said either, since the words "b’yom tzarati ekra’eka" ("on the day of my trouble I call You") are mentioned in it (Piskei Teshuvot 132:11). These passages are also printed in the siddurim of Nusach Sephard-Chassidi, although many omit them, only reciting Shir Shel Yom, like Minhag Ashkenaz.
Another difference between the nusachim is that in Nusach Ashkenaz, Aleinu L’Shabe’ach is recited first, then Shir Shel Yom, and finally Pitum HaKetoret; whereas in Nusach Sephard, Shir Shel Yom is recited first, then Pitum HaKetoret, and at the end, Aleinu L’Shabe’ach (the order of discussion in this book is arranged according to the order of prayers in Nusach Sephard).
Concerning someone who practices according to one nusach and is praying with a chazan following a different nusach, there is disagreement. Some say it is best that he prays in the nusach of the chazan, and others say it is best that he prays quietly in his own family’s nusach, but that he may not sit when the whole congregation stands for Aleinu L’Shabe’ach, so as not to emphasize the differences (see also earlier in this book, 6:5).

5.Pitum HaKetoret and Aleinu L’Shabe’ach
After Shir Shel Yom, it is customary to recite Pitum HaKetoret, preceded by Ein K’elokeinu. There are two reasons for its recital. The first is that Pitum HaKetoret corresponds to the incense which was offered every morning and evening in the Temple. The second is so that every Jew may merit learning rabbinic teachings daily. 5
In the Zohar (part 2, 212:2), Chazal greatly praise the recital of Pitum HaKetoret, asserting that we are saved, through its virtue, from many calamities. There are those who say that one must be very careful not to omit mentioning even one spice from the incense, therefore, it was not recited on weekdays, in fear that a person rushing to get to work would skip over one of the spices (Rama 132:2). In practice, it is the opinion of the majority of poskim that there is no need to be very meticulous regarding this. However, l’chatchilah it is proper to recite the passage from the siddur so not to skip a word (Beit Yosef; Mishnah Berurah 132:17).
It is customary to recite Aleinu L’Shabe’ach at the conclusion of the prayer service in order to instill in our hearts faith in Hashem and in our promised redemption before we leave off from prayer. Thus strengthened, when we afterwards encounter gentiles at work, or in the course of the day, we won’t be enticed by their gods and beliefs (Bach 133). 6
Due to the significance of this prayer, it is customarily recited while standing, and one bows slightly when saying the words "Va’anachnu kor’im" (Mishnah Berurah 132:9).

^ 1.This is Psalm 20. It is appropriate to recite Psalm 20 after the Shemoneh Esrei which contains nineteen berachot, since it follows a sequence – nineteen and then twenty. However, before the nineteeanth berachah was instituted, when the Shemoneh Esrei had only eighteen berachot, the reason this Psalm was still recited after it was because at that time Psalms 1 and 2 were considered to be one unit. Psalm 20 was therefore considered to be Psalm 19 and hence served as a continuation of the Amidah.

^ 2.The Rishonim are also divided concerning Kedushah in Birkat Yotzer HaMeorot, and even in that case the majority of poskim maintain that an individual is permitted to recite it. Yet, in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, it is best to recite it with cantillation signs, as implied from the Shulchan Aruch and Rama, Orach Chaim 59:3. Regarding Kedushah d’Sidra, according to more poskim, an individual may recite it. See Yabia Omer, part 5, 7:2.
There are those who prefer to recite Kedushah d’Sidra while standing, as one does for the Kedushah of the Amidah repetition. However, the minhag is to recite it while sitting, which is the minhag of the kabbalists, and hence, it can be understood that this Kedushah does not require a minyan.
The Mishnah Berurah 132:3 writes that an individual who did not yet finish Lamenatze’ach or Ashrei when the congregation already arrived at the verses of Kedushah should skip ahead in order to say those verses with the minyan. Kaf HaChaim writes that he should not skip, for it is more important to recite the prayers in their correct order. The Mishnah Berurah 132:4 writes that the translation of the verses into Aramaic must be recited quietly. Sha’arei Teshuvah writes that the Ari was not strict concerning this.

^ 3.One who mistakenly recited Kaddish-Titkabal after Tachanun says Kaddish Shalem without Titkabal after U’va L’Tzion (Ishei Yisrael 26:5). If one forgot to recite Titkabal in the Kaddish after U’va LTzion, he says Titkabal in the next Kaddish (Ishei Yisrael 26:11).

^ 4.Siddur Rav Amram Gaon mentions that Shir Shel Yom is recited. The Rambam, at the end of Sefer Ahavah in his wording of prayer, writes, "Some Jews were accustomed to reciting it…" In the Temple, Shir Shel Yom was also recited after the afternoon Tamid, nevertheless, our custom is not to recite it at Minchah. The reason for this, explains the Mishnah Berurah 132:16, that at times, in the Temple as well, if they were late in bringing the libation, Shir Shel Yom was not recited, because songs of praise are not recited at night.

^ 5.In Siddur Rav Amram Gaon there is no mention that we recite the passage of the Tamid and Pitum HaKetoret before the prayer service because the Shacharit prayer itself is considered to be in place of the Tamid offering. Rav Amram writes that the Pitum HaKetoret is recited after the prayer service. In the time of the Rishonim, many became accustomed to reciting Korbanot and Pitum HaKetoret before prayer, based on the Gemara in Ta’anit 27b, which states that its recital is considered to be a substitute for its offering.
Further, the initial minhag was to recite Pitum HaKetoret before Shir Shel Yom, as written in the Siddur of Rav Amram Gaon. So writes the Tur, Orach Chaim 133, and Rama 132:2. This minhag was changed based on the Ari, who switched the order based on the progressive sequence of the worlds (see earlier in this book, 13:2); therefore, Shir Shel Yom now precedes Pitum HaKetoret. However, the question arises, since the order in the Temple was the offering of the incense before the song of the Levi’im, how can it be changed? The Eshel Avraham 132 explains that because the incense is already recited after the Tamid in the passages of the Korbanot, there is no need to recite the incense before Shir Shel Yom again. Still, there is reason to recite Pitum HaKetoret even after the prayer service, corresponding to its smoke, which would continue to rise for a very long time. The explanation based on the Ari, is that the recital of Pitum HaKetoret after the prayer service saves the prayer from the external forces (Mishnah Berurah 132:14). The Shlah writes, based on Kabbalah, that it is customary to recite the full Pitum HaKetoret service three times daily, twice in Shacharit and another time at Minchah. This is cited by the Mishnah Berurah 132:14 and Kaf HaChaim 133:19. In any case, as I have already written (chapter 13:1, note 2), those in a hurry are permitted to recite only the Torah verses dealing with the incense in the beginning of the prayer service, on the assumption that at the end of the service they will recite the full baraita concerning the incense.

^ 6.The primary place of Aleinu L’Shabe’ach is in Musaf of Rosh HaShanah, in the beginning of Seder Malchuyot. However, during the time of the Rishonim, it had became the custom to conclude the Shacharit prayer with Aleinu L’Shabe’ach. Based on the Ari, it became customary to say Aleinu after each of the three daily prayers (Mishnah Berurah 132:7; Kaf HaChaim 11-12).
The Kolbo writes that Yehoshua composed the wording of the Aleinu prayer. Some say that Achan said "A l K en N ekaveh" when admitting his sin. However, Netiv Binah, part 1, pp. 373-374 writes that it is Rav who composed the prayer.
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