Question: Wanderings of the Mind
Mutti Kulis* calls me with the following predicament:
"Despite my best intentions, my mind sometimes wanders during davening, although I really wish I could focus always on building my relationship with Hashem. I recently discovered that the Mishnah Berurah rules that someone saying Shemoneh Esrei who realizes that he recited the first beracha without kavanah should refrain from proceeding until the chazzan's repetition and be very attentive to the chazzan's davening. I tried this once, but did not find this solution practical. The Mishnah Berurah's suggestion also does not help my wife, who davens at home. Although I am trying hard to think of the meaning of the words of the first beracha of Shemoneh Esrei, is there a different way to resolve the predicament, should I discover at some time in the future that I recited this beracha without kavanah?"
We should certainly be careful to think of the meaning of the words every time we praise Hashem. We should be even more concerned when reciting our daily prayers, since they are called avodah shebeleiv, service of the heart, which means our emotional attachment to Hashem. Tefillah means talking directly to Hashem, and that when davening we should at least be as attentive as we are when engaging in a casual conversation with a friend. One who does not know the meaning of every word should pray realizing that he/she is speaking to Hashem. The purpose of prayer is to communicate directly with Hashem, and it is rather obvious that davening inattentively does not achieve its purpose.
To quote the Shulchan Aruch, "A person who is praying must focus on the meaning of the words that he is saying and imagine that he is facing the Divine Presence. One must dispel all distracting thoughts so that his focus is undisturbed. One should ponder how attentive he would be and how carefully he would choose his words if he were speaking to a king of flesh and blood; certainly, before the King of all kings, the Holy One, blessed is He" (Orach Chayim 98:1).
Yet we all know that, unfortunately, we are often unmindful during our davening. The Gemara itself notes that it is inherently human to become distracted during prayer (Yerushalmi, Berachos 2:4; Rosh Hashanah 16b and Bava Basra 164b, as explained by Rabbeinu Tam). The question that this article will discuss is: Under what circumstances must one pray again because one was inattentive?
Kavanah and Birkas Avos
Although one might think that all the berachos of Shemoneh Esrei should be treated equally, they are not. The first beracha, called "Birkas Avos," has a very special role to play. The Gemara teaches: Someone who is praying must be attentive to the entire prayer. If he is unable to pay attention to the entire prayer, then he should focus minimally on at least one of the berachos. Rabbi Chiya, quoting Rav Safra, in the name of one of the scholars of Rebbe's yeshiva, explained that the beracha requiring attentiveness is Avos (Berachos 34b). Rashi explains that since Avos is the first beracha, failure to concentrate during its recital reveals that the individual is not really interested in davening, in which case it does not constitute a service. However, someone becoming preoccupied by his thoughts after the first beracha does not demonstrate that he did not want to daven, but simply that humans can easily be distracted.
Another reason why attentiveness during Birkas Avos is essential is that Shemoneh Esrei begins with a blessing that focuses on Hashem's greatness, which is the entire purpose of prayer. If this blessing was recited without kavanah, one has failed to pray, thus requiring its repetition (Bach, Orach Chayim 101; Mishnah Berurah 101:3).
Should I not daven?
If the entire purpose of prayer is to focus on Hashem's greatness, what should someone do if he realizes that, because of circumstances beyond his control, he cannot possibly be attentive when he prays? On the one hand, the mitzvah requires him to pray properly, yet this is impossible to achieve.
The Gemara rules that he is exempt from prayer.
Someone whose thoughts are unsettled should not pray… Rabbi Chanina did not pray on a day that he had gotten angry… One who returns from a trip should not pray for three days (Eruvin 65a). Rashi explains that because of the exhaustion of the trip, he is not settled enough to pray properly, until three days have passed. The Rambam codifies this: Any prayer recited inattentively is not a prayer. Someone who prayed without thinking must repeat the prayer attentively. If he finds that he is distracted, it is forbidden for him to pray, until he composes himself. For this reason, someone returning from traveling, who is exhausted or distressed, may not pray until he composes himself. Our Sages said a person should wait three days until he is rested and calm, and only then should he pray (Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 4:15). Thus, we see that someone who cannot have kavanah because of extenuating circumstances, such as illness or exhaustion, is exempt from davening.
Similarly, we find this recorded in another early halachic source, the Semag**: A person should assess himself. If he is able to focus his prayer at least in Birkas Avos, then he should pray. If he is unable to focus this much, then he should not pray (Positive Mitzvah #19).
Beyond our poor power to add or detract
The Shulchan Aruch modifies this conclusion, ruling as follows:
A person should not pray in a place where something will distract him and not at a time when he is distracted. However, now we are not that meticulous about this, because we do not concentrate that well in our prayers (Orach Chayim 98:2).
Nevertheless, the Shulchan Aruch still rules that one must have a minimum amount of kavanah to fulfill the mitzvah of praying: One who prays must be attentive to all the berachos. If he cannot be, he should at least focus on the beracha of Avos. And if he was inattentive to Avos, even if he recited the rest of the berachos with kavanah, he should repeat the prayer (Orach Chayim 101:1).
Is it a prayer if it lacked kavanah?
With this background, we can now tackle our initial question. What is the halacha if a person realizes, after the fact, that he recited the first beracha of Shemoneh Esrei without any kavanah?
The following Talmudic passage discusses our question:
Rabbi Yochanan said: I saw Rabbi Yannai pray, and then pray again (Berachos 30b). Why did Rabbi Yannai pray twice in quick succession? Rabbi Yirmiyah explained that Rabbi Yannai presumably had not prayed the first prayer with proper kavanah and therefore repeated it. Although the Gemara ultimately rejects Rabbi Yirmiyah's interpretation of Rabbi Yannai's actions, the point is still halachically valid: someone who davened without kavanah should repeat the Tefillah. This regulation is codified: If a person prayed without any kavanah when reciting the first beracha, he should repeat his prayers (Hagahos Ashri, Berachos, end of Chapter 5).
Will I be repeating davening forever?
This ruling may lead to the following predicament: If someone davened the first time without kavanah, perhaps he will daven again without kavanah. What will have been accomplished with the second davening? It is because of this concern that the previously cited rule is modified in the following statement:
One who davens and did not focus on his prayer, if he knows that he can pray again and focus, he should repeat the prayer, and if not, he should not repeat the prayer (Sefer Hamitzvos Katan***, Mitzvah #11).
This last opinion is expanded upon by the Tur and, in turn, by the Rama (Orach Chayim 101), who rule that should someone fail to have kavanah during the beracha of Avos, he should not repeat his prayer, because of the likelihood that he will not have kavanah the second time around, either.
This does not absolve us of the requirement to daven with kavanah, but merely explains that someone who davened without kavanah should not repeat the davening, since there is a good chance that the second davening will be no better than the first. For this reason, the Chayei Adam (34:2) rules that we do not repeat the Shemoneh Esrei; however, he notes that if the person realizes that he is not concentrating prior to reciting the name of Hashem at the end of Avos, he should return to the words Elokei Avraham and repeat most of the beracha. In this instance, since the beracha was not yet completed, he should attempt to recite the beracha with proper kavanah.
We cannot concentrate, we cannot hallow…
At this point, let us discuss Mutti's predicament. "Despite my best intentions, my mind sometimes wanders during davening. I recently learned that the Mishnah Berurah rules that one who recited the first beracha without kavanah should refrain from proceeding until the chazzan's repetition, and be very attentive to the chazzan's davening. I tried this once, but did not find this solution practical. Although I am trying hard that this situation not recur, is there a different resolution that I can use, should it happen again?"
Mutti is referring to the following point:
The Mishnah Berurah (in Bi'ur Halacha 101:1 s.v. Veha'idna) asks what one should do if, after completing the beracha of Avos, he realizes that he recited the first beracha without kavanah? How can he continue davening if he did not fulfill his mitzvah of praying?
The Mishnah Berurah is assuming that, without kavanah, the Tefillah had no purpose at all. He therefore feels that the person who is in the middle of davening and realizes that he recited the first beracha without kavanah faces a conundrum. He may not continue davening because this davening is purposeless, and, at the same time, he may not repeat the beracha he has already recited out of concern that the repeated beracha will also be said without kavanah. The Mishnah Berurah therefore suggests that someone in this predicament should wait until the chazzan repeats the Shemoneh Esrei and have in mind to fulfill his prayer requirement by paying careful attention to the chazzan's words.
Notwithstanding this analysis, the Mishnah Berurah notes that the Chayei Adam implies that once one has completed the first beracha of Shemoneh Esrei and realizes that he did not have kavanah, he may continue reciting Shemoneh Esrei. The question is, why? The answer appears to be that, although one is required to pray with kavanah, a prayer recited without kavanah does not have the status of a beracha recited in vain, and that the remaining Tefillah is still considered a Tefillah.
Beyond our poor power…
To resolve this question, the Kehilos Yaakov (Berachos #26; the exact numbering of the piece varies on which edition you see) explains that there are two distinct responsibilities, one to recite prayers and the other to pray with kavanah. One who prayed without kavanah fulfilled one mitzvah, but not the other. Therefore, the prayer recited without kavanah is not in vain, and even fulfills a mitzvah, but does not fulfill the greater mitzvah of praying with kavanah.
Rav Elyashiv (published in Madrich Hakashrus Glatt, Volume 20, pg. 143) objects to this approach, contending that we do not find anywhere that there are two distinct different mitzvos involved in prayer. He therefore suggests an alternative approach: someone who prayed without kavanah fulfilled one's responsibility to daven, but the importance of praying with kavanah allows one who can do so to pray again. Rav Elyashiv compares this to praying a voluntary prayer, a tefilas nedavah, and says that in the time of the Gemara, when people usually prayed with kavanah, one who prayed without kavanah was strongly advised to repeat the prayer, this time with kavanah. The Tur and Rama are explaining that when there is a good chance that the subsequent prayer will also be without proper kavanah, one should not pray a second time, because the voluntary prayer is only in order to pray with kavanah, which we cannot guarantee will result.
Praying when unsettled
However, both the Kehilas Yaakov and Rav Elyashiv's approaches are difficult to sustain in light of the following passage of Gemara, which we mentioned above:
Someone whose thoughts are unsettled should not pray… Rabbi Chanina did not pray on a day that he had gotten angry… One who returns from a trip should not pray for three days (Eruvin 65a).
According to both the Kehilas Yaakov and Rav Elyashiv, how can the Gemara rule that someone who is unsettled should not pray? One who fails to pray abrogates the mitzvah of prayer, which they hold one fulfills even if the prayer lacks kavanah? The above Gemara implies that there is no point to pray if he will not have kavanah.
These unsuccessful prayers shall not be berachos in vain
Rav Shelomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichos Shelomoh, Tefillah I pg. 99) presents a different approach that explains the Chayei Adam's ruling beautifully. Indeed, one who prayed without the minimum kavanah did not fulfill the mitzvah of Tefillah. However, these berachos are still praises to Hashem and are therefore not considered to be in vain, notwithstanding that one did not fulfill the mitzvah of Tefillah. According to this analysis, reciting Shemoneh Esrei without any kavanah at all did not fulfill the mitzvah of Tefillah, but the nineteen berachos recited were all "kosher" berachos.
Rav Shelomo Zalman supports his approach with the fact that we train children to daven, knowing full well that they are not going to have kavanah. If indeed this is considered a beracha levatalah, how could we do this?
He therefore concludes that although a prayer without kavanah does not fulfill the mitzvah of Tefillah, it is nevertheless a valid beracha. It will count towards one's requirement to recite 100 berachos every day, which would certainly not be so if the beracha were in vain.
Now, what happens if someone finds himself in Mutti's predicament? After completing the first beracha of Shemoneh Esrei, he realizes that he failed to have kavanah. The poskim rule that he should not repeat the davening. However, following the ruling implied by the Chayei Adam, he may continue his Tefillah, and the berachos do not have the status of berachos levatalah, notwithstanding the fact that he will not fulfill the mitzvah of Tefillah.
Although the Kehilos Yaakov and Rav Elyashiv proposed different approaches to resolve the question at hand, they also agree with the conclusion that Mutti may complete his Tefillah.
Certainly, one should do whatever one can to focus on the words of one's Tefillah, and particularly when reciting the first beracha of Shemoneh Esrei. Nevertheless, according to the Kehilos Yaakov, Rav Elyashiv and Rav Shelomoh Zalman Auerbach, one who failed to have kavanah in his first beracha may continue with his Tefillah.
* The name has been changed to protect his privacy.
** The author of this last statement is one of the Baalei Tosafos, Rabbi Moshe of Coucy, in his magnum opus, the Sefer Mitzvos Hagadol, which is usually called by its Hebrew acronym Semag. Although this work is not used today as one of the primary sources in deciding halacha, for a period of several hundred years, this was one of the main sources, if not the primary source, for halacha among Ashkenazic Jewry. It is one of the sources in halacha footnotes in the margin of the Gemara by the annotater Ein Mishpat. Although in the course of time, the Rosh and the Tur (and then later the Rama) supplanted the Semag as the main halachic source for Ashkenazi Jewry, it is still quoted frequently by the Beis Yosef and later commentaries.
*** The Semag's work, encompassing all the halachos that the Gemara teaches, is organized according to the 613 mitzvos. Shortly after this work was completed, a different Baal Tosafos, Rav Yitzchak of Corveille, authored a briefer work that summarizes the halachos of the mitzvos that we can observe during the time of the churban when living outside Eretz Yisrael. His work is called Sefer Hamitzvos Katan and is usually referred by the acronym Semak to distinguish it from the monumental work of the Semag.
This Shiur is published also at Rabbi Kaganof's site