If one placed the china in a kiln which was brought up to the standard temperature used to produce the china, would that not negate any non-kosher or even any milk-meat essences and basically be as if the china was just produced? If a Jew did this, would it even require immersion in a mikva?
Of course, there is a distinct possibilty that the china finish could be negatively impacted, but I can’t say this from any experience, just conjecture.
Thank you for your question. There is much Rabbinic discussion about koshering china and clay vessels by returning them to the furnace. The ruling of the Shulchan Aruch (Orech Haim, 551,1) is that one may kosher such vessels by returning them to the furnace they were fired up in (but the heat of a regular oven would not suffice). You are correct that there is a danger that the vessel will crack in the process.
Even if a Jew refurnaced the vessel it would not be considered that a Jew had manufactured it, just that they had koshered it, and so it would still need immersion in a mikvah if made by a non-Jew.
I am Israeli and will be in the US for Simchat Torah. I know in Chu"l they do 2 day chagim. Since I only do 1 day, I am not sure what to do because we will all be at a hotel, so there will be marit ayin as I leave the hotel. What can I do in this case?
I hope your trip is a beneficial one, and that you return speedily and safely to the Holy Land.
Israelis outside Israel on the second day of Yom Tov must pray and put on tefillin etc as they would in Israel (in private). Havdallah must be said at the end of the first day of Yom Tov. However, if you are in a city where there are other Jewish people (as opposed to camping in the middle of the desert, for example), then you may not perform any forbidden labor (melachot) even in private. This is the opinion of the major poskim including the Mishna Brurah. So my advice is to spend a nice slow day in the hotel, learning and relaxing. If there is a synagogue nearby, you might want to put on tefillin in your hotel room, then walk to shule and join them in their Simchat Torah - it's always a mitzvah to join Jews in their celebration of the Torah!