According to Orthodox Judaism when are the last days that is spoken of in the Tanach? Is it the last days of this present age that precedes the Messianic age or the last days of the Messianic age before the Day of Judgment?
We know that today we are already in what’s called “Y’mot HaMashiach” (=the “Days of Mashiach”), a time period which sees the return of the Nation of Israel to the Land of Israel (the "Engathering of the Exiles"), the revival of Hebrew our Holy language, the victories of our Holy army, our Holy State, and an unprecedented awakening to Torah (most noticeably, the return of 1,200,000 Jews from the former Soviet Union, who had 0% observance there, and have now “returned to the fold”). Accordingly, anything which precedes the messianic age has already taken place, and that which has yet to be fulfilled is either part of the messianic age or afterwards! Regarding the Day of Judgement, every single year on the High Holidays of Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, Jews face Heavenly judgment for that year, and in fact, to a smaller extent, we are judged every single day. In the future, the gentile nations are going to be judged and G-d will “close the account” with them some time during the “days of Mashiach” period, but it’s not clear from the sources at which stage it will be [if the prophets were totally explicit regarding time and place, etc., that would limit man’s free will, because man would mend his ways out of immediate gratification or fear and not out of ideal or true identification]. Our rabbis teach us that one should mend his ways “in time”, because you never know ahead of time when the “time” will be! Unfortunately, instead of improving and repenting, we see every day in the news many gentiles (not only Moslems, but some Christians, as well) who instead of aiding, actually hinder or even attack Israel- and they will surely get what they deserve! With prayer for the speedy eradication of evil in the world!