What is the appropriate thing to do when I’m still praying the amidah and: 1) During mincha, the shaliach tizbur starts kedusha? 2) In aravit when the kahal started kaddish? I always take longer in the amidah so this happens a lot. Do I keep davening? do I pause ? stand still? do I reply to kaddish?
Shalom, Thank you for your question. Someone who is still praying the silent Amidah when the chazan reaches kedusha, or kaddish should stop their personal prayer and listen to the kedusha or kaddish (see Shulchan Aruch, Orech Haim, 104,7 and the Mishna Brurah 27). For kaddish one should stop and listen from “Amen, Yehey Sh'may Raba ...” until the word “Yitborach”. During kedusha one should stop and listen when the congregation says “Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh … etc” and “Baruch Kavod … etc”, which are the essence of kadusha. Some say one should also listen to the line “Yimloch Hashem”. If one wants they may stop and listen to all of the Kedusha from the start to the finish (see Ishay Yisrael, 32 footnote 53 for a lengthy discussion of the opinions on this question). (Often this is a good option, as it allows one to only make one, longish, pause in their amidah, rather than stopping and starting after each response). May your prayers join with those of all Am Yisrael in front of Hashem.