Is Modern Orthodoxy and Haredim outside the scope of Judaism? Why or why not?
Modern orthodoxy and Haredim (literally: in awe of God) are, both by literal definition, Torah Judaism. Nevertheless, if these terms are used in reference to some who compromise halacha whether because of inconvenience or fashion (e.g. women not wearing a hair covering), or as a continuation of the exile mentality (e.g. those not living in and developing the Land and State of Israel, don't serve in the Israeli army, etc.), their compromising is despite (!) their affiliation with "orthodoxy" or "God-fearing"-ness, and hopefully will eventually be corrected. Modernism is how God runs history, so any believing Jew supports it, and, just like awe of God, it's meant to be used as a positive force in the "package deal" of the all-encompassing Torah.